HomeResearch and impact

Research and impact

Life for a Child has a very active research agenda in aspects of diabetes in young people in under-resourced communities.

This work is generally funded by The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust and covers:

  • Incidence, prevalence and mortality
  • Types of diabetes occurring
  • Access to diabetes care
  • Cost of diabetes care
  • Impact of interventions
  • Care-giving and psychological impacts

Below you can find a list of published works, information on the formal evaluation of Life for a Child, and a list of other publications that reference Life for a Child.

To request the full text of a publication please send us an email at info@lifeforachild.org.

Part A – Published papers by Life for a Child (most recent first)

Barone, M. T. U., & Klatman, E. (2024). Meaningful engagement of people living with noncommunicable diseases: challenges and opportunities. J. Patient Exp., 11, 1-4. Open access https://doi.org/10.1177/23743735231224560

Noble, J. A., Besançon, S., Sidibé, A. T., Rozemuller, E. H., Rijkers, M., Dadkhodaie, F., de Bruin, H., Kooij, J., Martin, H. R. N., Ogle, G. D., & Mack, S. J. (2024). Complete HLA genotyping of type 1 diabetes patients and controls from Mali reveals both expected and novel disease associations. HLA, 103(1), e15319. https://doi.org/10.1111/tan.15319

Sagna, Y., Bagbila, W. A. H., Sawadogo, N., Savadogo, P. C. P., Zoungrana, L., Séré, L., Yanogo, A. D. R., Ella Manuella Saloukou, K., Zemba, D., Zio, G. U., Zombre, Y. T., Millogo, R., Traoré, S., Ilboudo, A., Bognounou, R., Ouedraogo, N. C. J., Nikiema, P., Bengaly, S., Gilberte Kyelem, C., . . . Drabo, J. Y. (2024). Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of type 1 diabetes in children and youth in Burkina Faso 2013-2022. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 111086. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2023.111086

Beran, D., Højlund, K., Besançon, S., Mundt, M. L., Ogle, G. D., Ramaiya, K., Robinson, T., Svensson, J., Tuomilehto, J., Wild, S., & Green, A. (2023). A plan to improve global type 1 diabetes epidemiology data. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 11(3), 154-155.

Ogle, G. D., Gregory, G. A., Wang, F., Robinson, T. I., Maniam, J., Magliano, D. J., & Orchard, T. J. (2023a). The T1D Index: Implications of Initial Results, Data Limitations, and Future Development. Curr Diab Rep, 23(10), 277-291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-023-01520-4

Ogle, G. D., Gregory, G. A., Wang, F., Robinson, T. I. G., Maniam, J., Magliano, D. J., & Orchard, T. J. (2023b). Correction to: The T1D Index: Implications of Initial Results, Data Limitations, and Future Development. Curr Diab Rep, 23(10), 305. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-023-01524-0

Pendsey, S., James, S., Garrett, T. J., Nord, A. B., Pendsey, S., Malmodin, D., Karlsson, G., Maniam, J., Atkinson, M. A., Forsander, G., & Ogle, G. D. (2023). Insulin thermostability in a real-world setting. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 11(5), 310-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(23)00028-1

Sseguya W., James, S., Bwambale, M. L., Klatman, E., Ogle, G., Munyagwa, M., Maniam, J., Wesonga, R., Bahendeka, S. (2023). Type 1 diabetes patient experiences and management practices during the COVID-19 pandemic in rural Uganda. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 22(2):1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-023-01222-4

Besançon, S., Govender, D., Sidibé, A. T., Noble, J. A., Togo, A., Lane, J. A., Mack, S. J., Atkinson, M. A., Wasserfall, C. H., Kakkat, F., Martin, G. G. N., & Ogle, G. D. (2022). Clinical features, biochemistry, and HLA-DRB1 status in youth-onset type 1 diabetes in Mali. Pediatr Diabetes, 23(8), 1552-1559. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.13411

Brennan, F., Williams, P., Armstrong, K., Klatman, E., Donelan, N., Ogle, G. D., Eussen, A., & Jenkins, A. J. (2022). A human rights-based approach to improve access to insulin and other aspects of diabetes care. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 183, 109153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.109153

Gregory, G. A., Robinson, T. I. G., Linklater, S. E., Wang, F., Colagiuri, S., de Beaufort, C., Donaghue, K. C., Magliano, D. J., Maniam, J., Orchard, T. J., Rai, P., & Ogle, G. D. (2022). Global incidence, prevalence, and mortality of type 1 diabetes in 2021 with projection to 2040: a modelling study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 10(10), 741-760. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(22)00218-2

James, S., Maniam, J., Cheung, P. T., Urakami, T., von Oettingen, J., Likitmaskul, S., & Ogle, G. (2022). Epidemiology and phenotypes of diabetes in children and adolescents in non-European-origin populations in or from Western Pacific region. World J Clin Pediatr, 11(2), 173-195. https://doi.org/10.5409/wjcp.v11.i2.173

Morla, E., Ibrahim, A., Ogle, G. D., James, S., Maniam, J., Almanzar, R., Rosario, C., Matos, A., Ruiz, L., Martinez, P., & Lopez, J. (2022). Incidence of type 1 diabetes in children in Dominican Republic, 2010-2019: A national collaborative study. Pediatr Diabetes, 23(7), 976-981. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.13380

Nóvoa-Medina, Y., Pavlovic-Nesic, S., González-Martín, J. M., Hernández-Betancor, A., López, S., Domínguez-García, A., Quinteiro-Domínguez, S., Cabrera, M., De La Cuesta, A., Caballero-Fernández, E., González-Perera, M. A., De Miguel-Martínez, I., Ogle, G. D., & Wägner, A. M. (2022). Role of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the appearance of new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus in children in Gran Canaria, Spain. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 35(3), 393-397. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2021-0727

Ogle, G. D., James, S., Dabelea, D., Pihoker, C., Svennson, J., Maniam, J., Klatman, E. L., & Patterson, C. C. (2022). Global estimates of incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Atlas, 10th edition. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 183, 109083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.109083 View PDF

Wu, H., Patterson, C. C., Zhang, X., Ghani, R. B. A., Magliano, D. J., Boyko, E. J., Ogle, G. D., & Luk, A. O. Y. (2022). Worldwide estimates of incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in 2021. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 185, 109785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2022.109785 View PDF

Chan, J. C. N., Lim, L. L., Wareham, N. J., Shaw, J. E., Orchard, T. J., Zhang, P., Lau, E. S. H., Eliasson, B., Kong, A. P. S., Ezzati, M., Aguilar-Salinas, C. A., McGill, M., Levitt, N. S., Ning, G., So, W. Y., Adams, J., Bracco, P., Forouhi, N. G., Gregory, G. A., . . . Gregg, E. W. (2021). The Lancet Commission on diabetes: using data to transform diabetes care and patient lives. Lancet, 396(10267), 2019-2082. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)32374-6

Habineza, J. C., James, S., Sibomana, L., Klatman, E., Uwingabire, E., Maniam, J., & Ogle, G. D. (2021). Perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young adults with type 1 diabetes in Rwanda. Pan Afr Med J, 40, 252. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2021.40.252.28899

Ibrahim, T. A. M., Govender, D., Abdullah, M. A., Noble, J. A., Hussien, M. O., Lane, J. A., Mack, S. J., Martin, G. G. N., Atkinson, M. A., Wasserfall, C. H., & Ogle, G. D. (2021). Clinical features, biochemistry, and HLA-DRB1 status in youth-onset type 1 diabetes in Sudan. Pediatr Diabetes, 22(5), 749-757. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.13209

Jean-Baptiste, E., Larco, P., von Oettingen, J., Ogle, G. D., Moïse, K., Fleury-Milfort, E., Paul, R., Charles, R., & Larco, N. C. (2021). Efficacy of a New Protocol of Premixed 70/30 Human Insulin in Haitian Youth with Diabetes. Diabetes Ther, 12(9), 2545-2556. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13300-021-01130-x

Magliano, D. J., Boyko, E. J., & committee, I. D. F. D. A. t. e. s. (2021). IDF Diabetes Atlas. In Idf diabetes atlas. International Diabetes Federation

Mebrahtu, G., Maniam, J., James, S., & Ogle, G. D. (2021). High incidence of type 1 diabetes in adolescents and young adults in Eritrea. Diabet Med, 38(7), e14544. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.14544

Sandy, J. L., Besançon, S., Sidibé, A. T., Minkailou, M., Togo, A., & Ogle, G. D. (2021). Rapid increases in observed incidence and prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in children and youth in Mali, 2007-2016. Pediatr Diabetes, 22(4), 545-551. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.13191

Souris, K. J., Caballero Gonzales, M. D. C., Barrington, C., Klatman, E. L., Anderson, B. J., Duarte, E., Middlehurst, A. C., Nostas, M. C., & Ogle, G. D. (2021). ‘La Vida Normal’: Young people adapting to Type 1 diabetes in Bolivia. Chronic Illn, 17(3), 189-204. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742395319843172 View PDF

Zabeen, B., Maniam, J., Balsa, A. M. M., Tayyeb, S., Huda, K., Azad, K., & Ogle, G. D. (2021). Incidence of diabetes in children and adolescents in Dhaka, Bangladesh. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 34(4), 509-515. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2020-0671

Condie, A. M., Allen, T. V., & Ogle, G. D. (2020). Incidence and characteristics of childhood- and youth-onset diabetes in the Qalandarabad area in northern Pakistan. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 163, 108155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108155

Fawwad, A., Waris, N., Askari, S., Ogle, G., Ahmedani, M. Y., & Basit, A. (2020). Relationship of C-peptide levels to duration of Type 1 diabetes – A study from Sindh, Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci, 36(4), 765-769. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.4.1531

Gregory, G. A., Guo, J., Klatman, E. L., Ahmadov, G. A., Besançon, S., Gomez, E. D., Fawwad, A., Ramaiya, K., Wijesuriya, M. A., Orchard, T. J., & Ogle, G. D. (2020). Costs and outcomes of “intermediate” vs “minimal” care for youth-onset type 1 diabetes in six countries. Pediatr Diabetes, 21(4), 628-636. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12988

Klatman, E. L., Besançon, S., Bahendeka, S., Mayige, M., & Ogle, G. D. (2020). COVID-19 and type 1 diabetes: Challenges and actions. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 166, 108275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108275

Klatman, E. L., & Ogle, G. D. (2020). Access to insulin delivery devices and glycated haemoglobin in lower-income countries. World J Diabetes, 11(8), 358-369. https://doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v11.i8.358

Majeed, N. A., Shiruhana, S. A., Maniam, J., Eigenmann, C. A., Siyan, A., & Ogle, G. D. (2020). Incidence, prevalence and mortality of diabetes in children and adolescents aged under 20 years in the Republic of Maldives. J Paediatr Child Health, 56(5), 746-750. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14726

Tuomilehto, J., Ogle, G. D., Lund-Blix, N. A., & Stene, L. C. (2020). Update on Worldwide Trends in Occurrence of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes in 2020. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev, 17(Suppl 1), 198-209. https://doi.org/10.17458/per.vol17.2020.tol.epidemiologychildtype1diabetes

Blackstock, S., Witham, M. D., Wade, A. N., Crampin, A., Beran, D., Ogle, G. D., & Davies, J. I. (2019). Ability of verbal autopsy data to detect deaths due to uncontrolled hyperglycaemia: testing existing methods and development and validation of a novel weighted score. BMJ Open, 9(10), e026331. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026331 View PDF

Fawwad, A., Govender, D., Ahmedani, M. Y., Basit, A., Lane, J. A., Mack, S. J., Atkinson, M. A., Henry Wasserfall, C., Ogle, G. D., & Noble, J. A. (2019). Clinical features, biochemistry and HLA-DRB1 status in youth-onset type 1 diabetes in Pakistan. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 149, 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.01.023

Kehlenbrink, S., & Jaacks, L. M. (2019). Diabetes in humanitarian crises: the Boston Declaration. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 7(8), 590-592. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(19)30197-4

Klatman, E. L., Jenkins, A. J., Ahmedani, M. Y., & Ogle, G. D. (2019). Blood glucose meters and test strips: global market and challenges to access in low-resource settings. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 7(2), 150-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(18)30074-3

Klatman, E. L., McKee, M., & Ogle, G. D. (2019). Documenting and visualising progress towards Universal Health Coverage of insulin and blood glucose test strips for people with diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 157, 107859. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107859 View PDF

Mota-Oropeza, M. E., Bartley, H. E., Hernández-Pérez, N. D., Lara, A. G., Vázquez-López, N. A., Flores, M. F., Velázquez, M. M., Castañeda-Saldivar, M. J., Middlehurst, A. C., Jenkins, A. J., & Ogle, G. D. (2019). Providing quality care for children and adolescents with diabetes from lower-income families in Mexico. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 32(10), 1139-1146. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2019-0363

Ogle, G. D., von Oettingen, J. E., Middlehurst, A. C., Hanas, R., & Orchard, T. J. (2019). Levels of type 1 diabetes care in children and adolescents for countries at varying resource levels. Pediatr Diabetes, 20(1), 93-98. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12801

Patterson, C. C., Karuranga, S., Salpea, P., Saeedi, P., Dahlquist, G., Soltesz, G., & Ogle, G. D. (2019). Worldwide estimates of incidence, prevalence and mortality of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 9th edition. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 157, 107842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107842

Zabeen, B., Govender, D., Hassan, Z., Noble, J. A., Lane, J. A., Mack, S. J., Atkinson, M. A., Azad, K., Wasserfall, C. H., & Ogle, G. D. (2019). Clinical features, biochemistry and HLA-DRB1 status in children and adolescents with diabetes in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 158, 107894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107894

Ahmadov, G. A., Govender, D., Atkinson, M. A., Sultanova, R. A., Eubova, A. A., Wasserfall, C. H., Mack, S. J., Lane, J. A., Noble, J. A., & Ogle, G. D. (2018). Epidemiology of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Azerbaijan: Incidence, clinical features, biochemistry, and HLA-DRB1 status. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 144, 252-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.09.009

Friedemann-Sánchez, G., Capistrant, B. D., Ron, J., Novak, L., Zuijdwijk, C., Ogle, G. D., Anderson, B., Moran, A., & Pendsey, S. (2018). Caregiving for children with type 1 diabetes and clinical outcomes in central India: The IDREAM study. Pediatr Diabetes, 19(3), 527-533. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12567

Lim, L. L., Lau, E. S. H., Kong, A. P. S., Davies, M. J., Levitt, N. S., Eliasson, B., Aguilar-Salinas, C. A., Ning, G., Seino, Y., So, W. Y., McGill, M., Ogle, G. D., Orchard, T. J., Clarke, P., Holman, R. R., Gregg, E. W., Gagliardino, J. J., & Chan, J. C. N. (2018). Aspects of Multicomponent Integrated Care Promote Sustained Improvement in Surrogate Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 41(6), 1312-1320. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc17-2010

Rakhimova, G. N., Alimova, N. U., Ryaboshtan, A., Waldman, B., Ogle, G. D., & Ismailov, S. I. (2018). Epidemiological data of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children in Uzbekistan, 1998-2014. Pediatr Diabetes, 19(1), 158-165. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12495

Rowlands, A., Ameyaw, E., Rutagarama, F., Dipesalema, J., Majaliwa, E. S., Mbogo, J., Ogle, G. D., & Chanoine, J. P. (2018). Insights from the WHO and National Lists of Essential Medicines: Focus on Pediatric Diabetes Care in Africa. Horm Res Paediatr, 90(2), 82-92. https://doi.org/10.1159/000490467

Ameyaw, E., Asafo-Agyei, S. B., Thavapalan, S., Middlehurst, A. C., & Ogle, G. D. (2017). Clinical profile of diabetes at diagnosis among children and adolescents at an endocrine clinic in Ghana. World J Diabetes, 8(9), 429-435. https://doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v8.i9.429

Atun, R., Davies, J. I., Gale, E. A. M., Bärnighausen, T., Beran, D., Kengne, A. P., Levitt, N. S., Mangugu, F. W., Nyirenda, M. J., Ogle, G. D., Ramaiya, K., Sewankambo, N. K., Sobngwi, E., Tesfaye, S., Yudkin, J. S., Basu, S., Bommer, C., Heesemann, E., Manne-Goehler, J., . . . Werfalli, M. (2017). Diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: from clinical care to health policy. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 5(8), 622-667. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(17)30181-x

Capistrant, B. D., Friedemann-Sánchez, G., Novak, L. K., Zuijdwijk, C., Ogle, G. D., & Pendsey, S. (2017). Mental health and well-being among type 1 diabetes caregivers in India: Evidence from the IDREAM study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 134, 168-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2017.10.009

Duarte Gómez, E., Gregory, G. A., Castrati Nostas, M., Middlehurst, A. C., Jenkins, A. J., & Ogle, G. D. (2017). Incidence and Mortality Rates and Clinical Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes among Children and Young Adults in Cochabamba, Bolivia. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8454757 View PDF

Ogle, G. D., Middlehurst, A. C., & Silink, M. (2016). The IDF Life for a Child Program Index of diabetes care for children and youth. Pediatr Diabetes, 17(5), 374-384. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12296 View PDF

Ogle, G. D., Morrison, M. K., Silink, M., & Taito, R. S. (2016). Incidence and prevalence of diabetes in children aged <15 yr in Fiji, 2001-2012. Pediatr Diabetes, 17(3), 222-226. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12257

Piloya-Were, T., Sunni, M., Ogle, G. D., & Moran, A. (2016). Childhood diabetes in Africa. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes, 23(4), 306-311. https://doi.org/10.1097/med.0000000000000262

Marshall, S. L., Edidin, D. V., Arena, V. C., Becker, D. J., Bunker, C. H., Gishoma, C., Gishoma, F., LaPorte, R. E., Kaberuka, V., Ogle, G., Sibomana, L., & Orchard, T. J. (2015). Glucose control in Rwandan youth with type 1 diabetes following establishment of systematic, HbA1c based, care and education. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 107(1), 113-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2014.09.045

Patterson, C., Guariguata, L., Dahlquist, G., Soltész, G., Ogle, G., & Silink, M. (2014). Diabetes in the young – a global view and worldwide estimates of numbers of children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 103(2), 161-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2013.11.005

Atkinson, M. A., & Ogle, G. D. (2013). Improving diabetes care in resource-poor countries: challenges and opportunities. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 1(4), 268-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(13)70172-4

Marshall, S. L., Edidin, D., Sharma, V., Ogle, G., Arena, V. C., & Orchard, T. (2013). Current clinical status, glucose control, and complication rates of children and youth with type 1 diabetes in Rwanda. Pediatr Diabetes, 14(3), 217-226. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12007

Part B – Formal evaluation by London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

In 2014, The Leona M and Harry B Helmsley Charitable Trust commissioned the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine to conduct a comprehensive formal evaluation of the work of Life for a Child.

The work was conducted by a team lead by Professor Martin McKee and Dr. Sue Atkinson. Site visits were done in five countries: Rwanda, India, Jamaica, Mexico, and Philippines.

The review covered five themes:

  • Life for a Child structure and organization
  • Optimal strategic framework for high impact sustainable results
  • Changes to polices that could improve quality, quantity, efficiency and effectiveness
  • Impacts on countries, systems and children
  • Impact on long term sustainability in T1D care delivery systems

The review overall shows that Life for a Child is a strong programme that is delivered well and is highly valued by the countries and the children, young people and their families that are supported by it. It is clear that Life for a Child enables children and young people with type 1 diabetes to survive and, as the programme and country policies strengthen, enables them also to thrive.

Life for a Child already does many things right and the team, albeit small, are extremely dedicated and enthusiastic. Many aspects are to be applauded and continued.

The review identifies Life for a Child’s strengths and challenges. It focuses particularly on the Programme’s engagement in-country and on how Life for a Child develops a strategic direction for care and treatment of type 1 diabetes. It identifies a need for developing country leadership and building local capacity, implementing approaches that catalyze systemic improvements in type 1 diabetes care delivery systems.

The ultimate goal must be for people with type 1 diabetes to be able to get good treatment and care within their country’s health system. Unfortunately, this does not appear to be a realistic goal in the short term in most countries. Nevertheless, there is a need for a higher priority to be given to the medium and long-term sustainability of the support provided for children with type 1 diabetes, making full use of the experiences gathered by Life for a Child and the information that it has collected on burden of disease, health needs, and barriers to be overcome in obtaining effective care by people with type 1 diabetes.

The five themes are explored in depth and recommendations made in relation to each”.

Work is now underway to strengthen sustainability aspects and implement the other recommendations of the report.

The full report is available here.

Part C – Published works by others referencing Life for a Child

Hans Hogerzeil. (2023). The development of a national diabetes programme in Tanzania: Lessons learnt in the transition from a donation supported towards sustainable diabetes diagnosis and care. Report for the Addressing the Challenge and Constraints of Insulin Sources and Supply (ACCIS) study. Available from the Health Action International website.

Bratina N, Annan F, Wysocki T. Pierce J, Calliar LE, Pacaud D, Adolfsson P, Dovc K, Middehurst A, Goss P, Goss J, Janson S, Acerini CL (2018). ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines. Management and support of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in school. Pediatr Diabetes. Suppl 27:287-30.

Hogerzeil HV, Recourt S. Company and Company-supported Programmes with a Component of Donated Insulin in Low- and Middle-income Countries. Health Action International. Amsterdam; 2018. Available from the Health Action International website.

Hilliard ME, Oser SM, Close KL, Liu NF, Hood KK, Anderson BJ. (2015). From Individuals to International Policy: Achievements and Ongoing Needs in Diabetes Advocacy. Curr Diab Rep. 15(9):59 doi: 10.1007/s11892-015-0636-z

Noorani M, Ramaiya K, Manji K. (2016). Glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents in a resource limited setting in Dar es Salaam – Tanzania. BMC Endocrine Disorders. 16(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s12902-016-0113-y

Majaliwa ES, Munubhi E, Ramaiya K et al. (2007). Survey on acute and chronic complications in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Diabetes Care 30(9):2187-92.
doi: 10.2337/dc07-0594.

Haugvik S, Beran D, Klassen P, Hussain A, Haaland A. (2017). “My heart burns” – A qualitative study of perceptions and experiences of type 1 diabetes among children and youths in Tajikistan. Chronic. Illn. 13(2):128-139. doi: 10.1177/1742395316668566.

Muze KC, Majaliwa ES. (2015).Type 1 diabetes care updates: Tanzania. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 19(1):S12-S13. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.155348.

Daneman D. (2009). State of the world’s children with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 10 (2):120-126. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2008.00479.x.

Life for a Child research partners include many of our local partner centres and researchers in various leading institutions such as:

  • University of Pittsburgh
  • University of Sydney
  • University of Florida
  • University of California San Francisco
  • JDRF
  • University of Gothenburg
  • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
  • Barbara Davis Center

Life for a Child USA Inc. is a 501(c)(3) organization EIN 47-4901579.

Diabetes Overseas Aid Fund T/A Life for a Child is a registered charity with the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission.

Life for a Child is a program of Diabetes Australia.

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